John Bennett
John is a guitarist, vocalist and writer ... more description later.
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Beggar's Bread
(Reflections on Psalm 1)

    1How blessed is the man who does not walk in the counsel of the wicked,
         Nor stand in the path of sinners,
         Nor sit in the seat of scoffers!
    2But his delight is in the law of the LORD,
         And in His law he meditates day and night.
    3He will be like a tree firmly planted by streams of water,
         Which yields its fruit in its season
         And its leaf does not wither;
         And in whatever he does, he prospers.
    4The wicked are not so,
         But they are like chaff which the wind drives away.
    5Therefore the wicked will not stand in the judgment,
         Nor sinners in the assembly of the righteous.
    6For the LORD knows the way of the righteous,
         But the way of the wicked will perish.


         Psalm 1 draws a vivid contrast between the 'blessedness' of the godly life (vs. 1-3) and the devastating consequences of 'wickedness' (vs. 4-6).  'Blessedness is not a mere emotion or a blissful response to our unpredictable circumstances.  We do not always need to feel happy to be 'blessed', because true blessing is a gift from God which transcends our situations, surroundings, or turbulent conditions.  Our modern concept of happiness is often in the form of instant gratification or sensual pleasure, like food, nicotine, sex, drugs, etc.  These are fleeting, temporal and when misappropriated, will wreak havoc in our daily lives and ultimately - destruction.  Contrarily, God's blessings are eternal; therefore imperishable and intransient:

“…we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal” (2Cor 4:18).


           In verse 1 the contrast between ‘blessedness’ and ‘wickedness’, often referred to in Proverbs as ‘wisdom’ verses ‘folly’,  can be characterized by a marked decent, a disturbing degeneration into idolatry.  First, the ‘blessed man’ does not ‘walk in the counsel of the wicked’, that is, he does not stray carelessly into temptation by ‘circling the wagons’ of sin.  He avoids listening to unwholesome, lurid conversation.  He circumvents a trail where his feet will be defiled or his hands made unclean (spiritually speaking).  He is attuned to the admonishment of Proverbs 4:15, “Avoid it, do not pass by it; turn away from it and pass on”. 


Secondly, he does not ‘stand’ in the path of sinners.  It is easy to become defiled by the worlds’ standards of behavior. We begin to act as the world would have us.  Our speech becomes noxious and we begin to behave unseemly.  By walking according our ‘pleasure sensors’ the tantalizing path of ‘folly’ (likened to a seductive woman and contrasted with ‘wisdom’ in Proverbs 7:24-27) has fatal results:

 Now therefore, my sons, listen to me,
         And pay attention to the words of my mouth.
Do not let your heart turn aside to her ways,
         Do not stray into her paths.
For many are the victims she has cast down,
         And numerous are all her slain.
Her house is the way to Sheol,
         Descending to the chambers of death.


Thirdly, in contrast, the wicked or foolish person ultimately descends into all-embracing idolatrous living and becomes in bondage to sin. He or she is now ‘sitting’ in the seat the scoffers… in the grip of debauchery or addiction or even relational deviance:  “Suddenly he follows her, as an ox goes to the slaughter, or as one in fetters to the discipline of a fool” (Proverbs 7:22).  “To scoff is to express insolent doubt or derision, openly and emphatically” (Random House Dictionary, 2010).  It is ‘mockery’ of the most ignoble sort.  Such was the case when sinful hands nailed Jesus to the cross:

“They dressed Him up in purple, and after twisting a crown of thorns, they put it on Him; and they began to acclaim Him, “Hail, King of the Jews!”  They kept beating His head with a reed, and spitting on Him, and kneeling and bowing before Him. After they had mocked Him, they took the purple robe off Him and put His own garments on Him. And they led Him out to crucify Him (Mark 15:17-20).


Conversely, the ‘blessed man’ has received God’s blessing, taken His counsel, His encouragement, His hope.  How so?  The ‘blessed man’ knows God in a personal way; therefore he meditates on the word of God (verse 2) and receives refreshment, nourishment, yes…he is ‘blessed’.


It has been said that the alcoholic who is merely sober, without a change having taken place in his heart, can have the ‘dry drunks’.  He has separated from alcohol but has not separated unto the living God; therefore he may experience effervescent, momentary happiness but he is not ‘blessed’.  He has no lasting peace.  He has yet to discover the joy of meditating upon the word of God for he knows not God.  He is unfamiliar with the ways of God, His sayings, His compassion,  steadfast love and—His sublime holy character, which are learned in the Bible.

Others are confused about what it means to ‘meditate’ on the scriptures; confusing eastern forms of ‘mind emptying’ with a mind filled and renewed, a heart transformed by the living word of God.  The man of God can say with an honest heart, “How sweet are Your words to my taste!  Yes, sweeter than honey to my mouth!” (Psalm 119:103).   For the ‘blessed man’ the word of God is a lamp to his feet and a light to his path (Psalm 119: 105).  He is no longer living a dry, arid, parched life, but is “like a tree planted by streams of water” (verse 3), transplanted, fruitful, whose “leaf does not wither”—imperishable, eternal, prosperous


But the wicked will ultimately reap the whirlwind of their sinful lifestyle.  They are likened to 'chaff' (vs. 4) which when it is winnowed from the wheat is blown away by the wind ... forgotten and worthless.  As such, "the wicked will not stand in the judgment." (vs. 5).  Dear friend, the Bible is clear, "There is a way which seems right to a man, but its end is the way of death." (Proverbs 14:12). 


Gratefully, God in His mercy and grace has made ample provision through the death of His Son, the Lord Jesus Christ to know your sins forgiven; to have a 'blessed life' that will endure eternally.  True joy, lasting peace, and unconditional love, "If you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved" (Romans 10:9).  God Himself has reached out to us, who deserve judgment, and He offers mercy.  We were created for good works, to serve Him and enjoy communion with Him; but we must come to him.  jesus said, "Come to me, all who are weary and heavy-laden, and I will give you rest" (Mathew 11:28).  Why not humble your heart and accept His offer of mercy?  As you do, you will find 'blessing upon blessing.'  Then as you read, study and meditate upon His word you will be "like a tree firmly planted by streams of water, which yields its fruit in its season and its leaf does not wither."  You will enjoy His favor, His protection; He will be a refuge in times of trouble.  No matter what your circumstances, troubles, or trials - you will be 'blessed.'



2nd Samuel 1



“…but speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in all aspects into Him who is the head, even Christ” Ephesians 4:15.

The chapter before us is striking.  King Saul had a cruel and enduring hatred of David and resolutely sought to take his life; however, David, the man after God’s own heart, “His generous soul, oblivious to itself, poured out like a flood of the noblest tears ever shed for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, and for the people of the Lord, and for the house of Israel, because they were fallen by the sword.” (Meyer p.151).   He can only speak of their highest good, even Saul’s: “They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions” (2nd Samuel 23:1); he could only ‘speak the truth in love’.


In the last chapter of 1st Samuel the account of Israel’s first king, Saul, is chronicled as follows: although Saul at one time pursued the Philistines (14:22),

“Now the Philistines were fighting against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines and fell slain on Mount Gilboa. The Philistines overtook Saul and his sons; and the Philistines killed Jonathan and Abinadab and Malchi-shua the sons of Saul. The battle went heavily against Saul, and the archers hit him; and he was badly wounded by the archers. Then Saul said to his armor bearer, “Draw your sword and pierce me through with it, otherwise these uncircumcised will come and pierce me through and make sport of me “ But his armor bearer would not, for he was greatly afraid So Saul took his sword and fell on it” (1-4).

Various criticisms are offered for King’s Saul action, from gallantry to suicide.  While it is true he was unwilling to bear the agony of a slow and excruciating death, and, if we rely upon the Scriptures to be a revealer of the heart, his telling motive can be found in verse 4- “otherwise these uncircumcised will come and pierce me through and make sport of me”.  In his favor, Preston contends, “Saul dies on the battlefield, doing the job he had been anointed and elected to do...leading the armies Israel against her enemies

(p. 37); however, “The man who had been originally introduced as the one who would “deliver [God’s] people from the hand of the Philistines” (9:16) meets his end by dying at their hands” (Youngblood, p. 299).  The Final Authority as to the nature and reason for Saul’s death is found in 1 Chronicles 10:13-14:  “So Saul died for his trespass which he committed against the Lord, because of the word of the Lord which he did not keep; and also because he asked counsel of a medium, making inquiry of it, and did not inquire of the Lord. Therefore He killed him and turned the kingdom to David the son of Jesse”.

If Saul was indeed gallant, as David emphatically declares in his poetic lament (2nd Sam 19:27), we must also conclude he was a jealous, self-serving man whose disobedience to the Lord cost him his kingship and eventually his life: “Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to heed than the fat of rams”



David Learns of Saul’s Death (1-16)

1 Now it came about after the death of Saul, when David had returned from the slaughter of the Amalekites that David remained two days in Ziklag. 2 On the third day, behold, a man came out of the camp from Saul, with his clothes torn and dust on his head. And it came about when he came to David that he fell to the ground and prostrated himself. 3 Then David said to him, “From where do you come ?” And he said to him, “I have escaped from the camp of Israel.” 4 David said to him, “How did things go ? Please tell me.” And he said, “The people have fled from the battle, and also many of the people have fallen and are dead ; and Saul and Jonathan his son are dead also.” 5 So David said to the young man who told him, “How do you know that Saul and his son Jonathan are dead ?” 6 The young man who told him said, “By chance I happened to be on Mount Gilboa, and behold, Saul was leaning on his spear. And behold, the chariots and the horsemen pursued him closely. 7 “When he looked behind him, he saw me and called to me. And I said, ‘Here I am.’ 8 “He said to me, ‘Who are you?’ And I answered him, ‘I am an Amalekite.’ 9 “Then he said to me, ‘Please stand beside me and kill me, for agony has seized me because my life still lingers in me.’ 10 “So I stood beside him and killed him, because I knew that he could not live after he had fallen. And I took the crown which was on his head and the bracelet which was on his arm, and I have brought them here to my lord.” 11 Then David took hold of his clothes and tore them, and so also did all the men who were with him. 12 They mourned and wept and fasted until evening for Saul and his son Jonathan and for the people of the LORD and the house of Israel, because they had fallen by the sword. 13 David said to the young man who told him, “Where are you from?” And he answered, “I am the son of an alien, an Amalekite.” 14 Then David said to him, “How is it you were not afraid to stretch out your hand to destroy the LORD’S anointed?” 15 And David called one of the young men and said, “Go, cut him down.” So he struck him and he died. 16 David said to him, “Your blood is on your head, for your mouth has testified against you, saying, ‘I have killed the LORD’S anointed.’ “

We have recounted the occasion of King Saul’s death in 1 Samuel 31, convinced of it’s accuracy and veracity, so as now to consider a falsified report announced in the first chapter of 2nd Samuel by a most spurious narrator, an Amalekite.  Two days prior, David had just returned from defeating the Amalekites.  Upon seeing this disheveled, hapless excuse for a warrior, David is prompted to make thorough inquiry as to his recent whereabouts, with unwavering scrutiny as to the condition of his beloved people, the Israelites and especially Saul and Jonathan.  And the tale is spun by this apparent ‘soldier of fortune’, an Amalekite, who had linked himself with the Philistines perchance to enrich himself with the spoils of war.

Confrontation with Greed

Though the Amalekite thought he had managed a ‘financial coup’, he grossly miscalculated the affections of David as each fictitious incident pierced David’s bountiful heart.  But momentarily, focus on this Amalekite. 

Being deluded by his selfishness, his greed was his demise; as he thought only of some material reward.  However, “…what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world and forfeits his soul? Or what will a man give in exchange for his soul?” (Mat 15:26).  He robbed the dead, assuming great spoil, but lost his soul.  The outward man is perishing; our mortal bodies are corruptible, soon to decay and return to dust.  “Life is short, death is sure; sin the cause, Christ the cure” (Herman Petrecca, a friend). 

Truly, we are living in perilous times:

But know this, that in the last days grievous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, haughty, railers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, implacable, slanderers, without self-control, fierce, not lovers of good, traitors, headstrong, puffed up, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God; holding a form of godliness, but having denied the power therefore. From these also turn away” (2nd Tim 3: 1-5).

No wonder the Lord Jesus declared, “Let the dead bury the dead”.  To invest one’s life in self preservation is to loose it; there is no perpetual value.

Now the Amalekites were descendents of Esau whose fleshly appetite was his undoing.  Being hungry, he despised his birthright, sold it for some stew, and further grieved his parents by marrying many Hittite women (from the Canaanite nations-Gen26:34).  Esau’s son, Eliphaz was father to Amalak.  There are many examples, but briefly you may recall Haman in the Book of Esther who ruthlessly sought the destruction of the Jews in Persia- he was an Amalekite.  The Amalekites are a picture of the ‘flesh’ or the ‘sinful nature’ common to all, which wars against the Spirit. The Amalekites were prophetically Israel’s mortal enemy forever (see Exodus 17:8-14); just as the ‘flesh’ will vie for dominance in the Christian’s life. However, if we have been truly regenerated, born again, the Lord Jesus Christ has “delivered us out of the power of darkness, and translated us into the kingdom of the Son of His love; in whom we have our redemption, the forgiveness of our sins” (Col 1:13).

“…knowing this, that our old man was crucified with [him], that the body of sin might be done away, that so we should no longer be in bondage to sin Even so reckon also yourselves to be dead unto sin, but alive unto God in Christ Jesus. Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that ye should obey the lusts thereof: neither present your members unto sin [as] instruments of unrighteousness; but present yourselves unto God, as alive from the dead, and your members [as] instruments of righteousness unto God. For sin shall not have dominion over you: for you are not under law, but under grace” (Rom 6: 6; 11-14).

David undoubtedly recognized the crown of King Saul and the bracelet as genuine royal insignias, but whether he believed the Amalekite or not, David made short shrift of him. “Far from receiving the reward that he thinks David will surely give him…the Amalekites callous bravado (vs. 14) has sealed his doom” (Youngblood, p.808) ‘Greed’ is a fleshly monster that drowns men in perdition.

Confrontation with Resentment

Clearly there are examples of ‘resentment’ in the Old Testament. Cain resented Able as evidenced by his response to the Lord’s inquiry concerning the whereabouts of Able:And the Lord had regard for Abel’s offering but for Cain and for his offering He had no regard. So Cain became very angry and his countenance fell… Then the Lord said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” And he said, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?”(Gen 4:4b, 5a).  But there are also many examples where ‘resentment’ could easily have gripped the heart, yet we find the opposite—kindness, forgiveness and love. Abraham could easily have resented his nephew Lot for having pre-chosen the well watered plain, like the garden of the Lord (Gen 13:10); however we see the patriarch delivering Lot from captivity (Gen14: 11-16) and then imploring the Lord for Lot’s sake not to destroy Sodom and Gomorrah.  Job could easily have resented God for his abhorred predicament but instead his heart responded, Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I shall return there. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away. Blessed be the name of the Lord. Through all this Job did not sin nor did he blame God” (Job 1:21-22).   But no prototype of forgiveness, kindness and love is more resplendent then David’s remarkable response to the man who stripped him of his post as commander in the military (1st Sam 18:13), took away his fiancée (1st Sam 18:19), removed him from his family (1st Sam19:18), hunted him as a homeless fugitive (1st Sam 24), then took away his wife (1st Sam 25:44).  But most daunting, David was unable to enjoy his homeland and the communal worship of his Lord and God.  David’s response: he “…mourned and wept and fasted until evening for Saul and his son Jonathan and for the people of the Lord and the house of Israel, because they had fallen by the sword” (2nd Sam: 1:12). Then he composes a poem set to music (2nd Sam1 :17-27).  No mere obligatory sentiment, “This elegy as a noble tribute of respect unto Saul and of tender affection for Jonathan…he called upon the daughters of Israel who had once sung Saul’s praises, to now weep over their fallen leader” (Pink, p.234).

“The bow of Jonathan did not turn back, and the sword of Saul did not return empty.  Saul and Jonathan, beloved and pleasant in their life, and in their death they were not parted; They were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions. O daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you luxuriously in scarlet, who put ornaments of gold on your apparel. How have the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle!” (2nd Sam 1:22b-25).

David exhibited no animosity toward Saul.  This is most touching, even startling, in light of how easy it is for us to bare a grudge, sometimes for years; a harboring resentment that tears away at our inner being, robs us of our joy, and can have residual effects on the body of Christ: See to it that no one comes short of the grace of God; that no root of bitterness springing up causes trouble, and by it many be defiled (Heb12:15).  Or consider Proverbs 24:17-18a, “Do not rejoice when your enemy falls, and do not let your heart be glad when he stumbles or the Lord will see it and be displeased”.  But rather, “Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you (Eph 4:32).  A friend has well said, “The heaviest burden one can ever carry is a grudge.  Ray Steadman put it this way,  

“When I am at odds with another person …Christ is there too is to make me aware immediately of what He has taught me. It is only when I forget myself and devote myself to another’s fulfillment that I will find my own heart running over with grace and satisfaction.… Those who try desperately to satisfy themselves are the ones who end up hollow inside. Our Lord put it this way: “For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for me will find it (Matthew 16:25)” (, 4/24/10).





Confrontation with Sin’s Atrocity

David’s Dirge for Saul and Jonathan

17 Then David chanted with this lament over Saul and Jonathan his son, 18 and he told them to teach the sons of Judah the song of the bow; behold, it is written in the book of Jashar. 19 Your beauty, O Israel, is slain on your high places! How have the mighty fallen! 20Tell it not in Gath, Proclaim it not in the streets of Ashkelon, Or the daughters of the Philistines will rejoice, The daughters of the uncircumcised will exult. 21O mountains of Gilboa, Let not dew or rain be on you, nor fields of offerings ; For there the shield of the mighty was defiled, The shield of Saul, not anointed with oil. 22From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan did not turn back, and the sword of Saul did not return empty. 23 “Saul and Jonathan, beloved and pleasant in their life, And in their death they were not parted; they were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions. 24 O daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you luxuriously in scarlet, who put ornaments of gold on your apparel. 25How have the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! Jonathan is slain on your high places. 26 “I am distressed for you, my brother Jonathan; you have been very pleasant to me. Your love to me was more wonderful than the love of women. 27How have the mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perished!”

Perhaps one way to describe ‘sin’ is- ‘the death of beauty’.  Not even a good thesaurus can completely characterize its heinousness, let alone God’s estimation.  It is noteworthy that the ‘beauty of Israel’ was slain on ‘high places’ (Vs. 21).  These were false places of worship, generally in high elevations where Israel’s idolatry in departing from the living God was manifested.  Later, when chronicling the careers of other kings of Israel, the scriptures consistently reference their denouncing and removal (or maintaining, as the case may be) of these pagan idols.  Even of otherwise good kings, like King Asa, it is written, “But the high places were not taken away ; nevertheless the heart of Asa was wholly devoted to the Lord all his days” (1Kings 15:14).  However, good King Hezekiah, removed the high places and broke down the sacred pillars and cut down the Asherah….He trusted in the Lord, the God of Israel” (2nd Kings 15:4a,  5a).

It cannot be said of Saul, or even Jonathan, that a fervent attempt was made to remove these ‘high places’.  Regrettably, David cites that Jonathan was slain on the ‘high places’ of Israel (vs.25).  So, idolatry has many profiles, not only in fleshly or worldly  expressions, but religious as well, “For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but wanting to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires, and will turn away their ears from the truth and will turn aside to myths” (2nd Tim 4).  The Apostle Paul prophesized to the Ephesian elders,  “I know that after my departure savage wolves will come in among you, not sparing the flock ; and from among your own selves men will arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away the disciples after them.  Therefore be on the alert” (Acts 20: 29-31a).  The leadership of King Saul would have led Israel further along the debilitating atrocities of sin.  At the end of the day (as they say) Saul loved himself.  And today, correspondingly:

“…in the last days difficult times will come. For men will be lovers of self, lovers of money, boastful, arrogant, revilers, disobedient to parents, ungrateful, unholy, unloving, irreconcilable, malicious gossips, without self-control, brutal, haters of good, treacherous, reckless, conceited, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, holding to a form of godliness, although they have denied its power; avoid such men as these.” (2nd Tim 3: 1-5).

“How have the Mighty fallen” (vs. 19b, 25a); not only the manner in which they fell, but “How is it possible for such to happen”?  Friends, if we believe we are living before the soon return of the Lord Jesus Christ, then (according to a historical yet plausible interpretation) we are in the Laodicean age of the church…the last days:

I know your deeds, that you are neither cold nor hot; I wish that you were cold or hot. ‘So because you are lukewarm, and neither hot nor cold, I will spit you out of My mouth. ‘Because you say, “I am rich, and have become wealthy, and have need of nothing,” and you do not know that you are wretched and miserable and poor and blind and naked” Rev 3:15-17).

This is not where it ends; there is good news, there is abundant hope for those of us who have been backslidden:

Those whom I love, I reprove and discipline; therefore be zealous and repent.  ‘Behold, I stand at the door and knock ; if anyone hears My voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and will dine with him, and he with Me.  He who overcomes, I will grant to him to sit down with Me on My throne, as I also overcame and sat down with My Father on His throne. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches.’ “

Because of Him Who is truly ‘swifter than eagles, stronger than lions’, we can be ‘overcomers’:

“And they overcame him because of the blood of the Lamb and because of the word of their testimony, and they did not love their life even when faced with death” (Rev 12:11).

Our life may be fraught with difficulty, obstacles to holiness and, yes, ‘besetting sins’ (Heb 12:1).  At times the Lord’s discipline may seem insufferable but take heart- it is for our benefit:

“He disciplines us for our good, so that we may share His holiness.  All discipline for the moment seems not to be joyful, but sorrowful; yet to those who have been trained by it, afterwards it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness.  Therefore, strengthen the hands that are weak and the knees that are feeble, and make straight paths for your feet, so that the limb which is lame may not be put out of joint, but rather be healed.” (Heb 12: 10b-13).

            One last point: we cannot live an obedient life in isolation.  We are ‘body of Christ’ and as such are exhorted to, “stimulate one another to love and good deeds, not forsaking our own assembling together, as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day drawing near.”  (Heb 10:24b-25).              Although David commends Jonathan for his faithfulness to his father (for ‘the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David (1st Sam18:1a), Jonathan chose to support his father in battle rather than join David in his escape to the Cave of Adullum (1st Sam 22).  But the gracious heart of David makes no mention of such but rather reflects on the sweet fellowship they had once enjoyed: “You have been very pleasant to me. Your love to me was more wonderful than the love of women” (vs. 26).  What saint cannot tell of being buoyed, nurtured, and comforted by the encouragement and love of the brethren, especially during seasons of great distress?   With all our flaws and shortcomings we are admonished to, “…regard one another as more important than yourselves; do not merely look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others. Have this attitude in yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus” (Phil: 3b-5). 


“Therefore, do not throw away your confidence, which has a great reward. For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will of God, you may receive what was promised.  FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE, HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY”

(Heb 10:35-37).


Even so, come Lord Jesus.




Meyer, F. B. David: Shepherd, Psalmist, King. Fort Washington, PA: Christian Literature Crusade (1977).

Pink, Arthur. The Life of David. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House (1981).

Preston, Thomas R. The Heroism of Saul: Patterns of the Meaning in the Narrative of the Early Kingship, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 24 (1982).

Youngblood, Ronald F. 1, 2 Samuel, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary (Frank E. Gaebelein, Gen. Ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan (1979).

All italicized Scriptural references are the emphases of the writer.